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Saturday, September 19, 2009

Tantricism Ritual That Exist in Bali Nowadays

Introduction

Religious rituals in Bali are generally aiming to get peace, prosperity wealthy, begging the blessing and salvation from Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa (God Almighty). Sekala (seen) and niskala (unseen) world is very strong role in Hindu religious lifes and between this two must go together in harmony.

In Bali, it is a habit or tradition of Hindu society to use as a visualization of their prayer and faith with ‘banten’ (offerings). One of these ‘banten’, in order to complete the whole ritual, there is an unique ritual of offerings some drink which called tetabuhan which offers ‘arak-berem’ (traditional Balinese Wine), in the event called ‘tetabuhan’. arak is a traditional wine processed from palm trees and berem made from fermented glutinous rice, both used in tetabuhan (drink offering) ritual. Translucent white arak and red berem this mixed are offered before prayer ceremony in order to completing the yadnya (holy sacrifice) ceremony.

This tradition is characteristic of the influence of tantric sect (tantrayana) teaching. Tantrayana word derived from Sanskrit, the Tantra and Yana. Tantra means a conclusion, the subject, because, obligations. Tantra is also a non-Vedic literature that discuss issues of religious doctrine, the letters of the mystical, metaphysical, philosophy and mantra. Meanwhile, Yana means God.

So it can be concluded that the meaning of the word tantrayana is obligation to Almighty God. Group or sect that teaches about tantra is called Tantrayana. When talking about this tantrayana, interpreted the scary or horrible ritual such as the blood of sacrificial animals (In Old days of Human Blood was in use), grave yard ritual with corpse, blood, skeleton and held on the middle of the night, trance or possessed ritual and naked-free sex accompanied with alcohol rites.

Origin of Tantrayana (Tantricism) in Bali

Tantrayana developed in Singasari Kingdom the royal power in east Java, with it famous king is Kertanagara (1268-1292 AD). His influence spreads from the island of Sumatra to Bali. Kertanegara is a tantrayana believer who proclaimed himself as a Bhairawa.

At the time when Bali has been conquested, so that a Singasari kingdom representative government in Bali is Kebo Parud who also Tantrician. The Tantrayana associated with mystical science or unseen/dark force. In addition is also revered depicted to a very scary statues , which shows ferocious, fierce, scary, and all things associated with death (corpse), skull, blood, human organs etc. Scary statue is used by the tantrayana adherents is to perform the ritual worship. Tantrayana adherents in realizing the statue, accordance the teachings base of uses dark magic and mysticism.

Tantricism and ‘Shakti’ Worshiper

Tantrayana as contained in the Purana scripture is one way to God Almighty. Tantrayana is also one way of ‘Bhakti Marga’ major homage to the Karma Marga and Jnana Marga of Brahmins and the Upanishads. In Tantrayana woman as ‘Shakti’ (feminim force) principle , and is preferably achieved cult.

Understanding the philosophy of trust received from Samkhyayoga with purusa and prakerti theory, more important is to use the syllable containing mystical character Om, Am, Um. By repeating these words and the power of the unseen is believed to be achieved.

The cult of ‘Shakti’ according of tantrayana teaching, that assume that by uttering spells and certain ceremonies, adherents will join with shakti or even become their as Shakti herself. Based on this understanding, a revered sacred blood of the dead flowing incessantly and using sacred magic pictures.

Tantrayana the most important ceremony is to 5 ma, the so-called five tatwa. Panca Tattwa (5 ma) is used as a way to connect the human soul with God. For adherents of tantrayana, the opinion that it is not human sensory ‘murder’ that could give way to achieve spiritual liberation (moksa), but satisfaction and gratification that boredom all human sensory and which will lead people to spiritual liberation.

Tantricism sect in Bali

Tantra is signed and developed in Bali called Tantra Bhairawa Bhima. Tantrayana in general can be divided into three, namely:

1. Bhairawa Kalacakra, this flow more elements of culture. This is one of the forbidden sect in Bali, which is also called Buddha Paksa. Practical by using certain mantras, dancing in the cemetery at night while facing the corpses. The goal is to gain magical powers of these bodies (corpse). The worship statue made like a giant knife-wielding dance upon the skulls and the bodies decorated with intestine.

2. Bhairawa Bhima, dominant in Bali, developing magical tradition which still alive until now. This sect has more sivaism elements on it.

3. Bhairawa Herucakra, where the culture more prominent. This sect developed in Sumatra in the Padang Raco area, with human-headed horse artefact.

But now these sect is melt in Balinese Hindu Religion. This is a reflection of Danghyang Dwijendra who combined all sects in the Balinese Hindu. However, tracks can be seen in religious rituals such as tetabuhan (drink ritual), kerauhan (trance/possessed), tabuh rah/ cockfight (cock fighting) etc.



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