Sunday, September 20, 2009

Melukat: Ritual to cleanse your body and soul

Understanding ‘Melukat’

‘Melukat’ is part of the Manusa Yadnya (holy sacrifice which dedicated to human being) ceremony . Melukat aims to cleanse and purify the human body and soul in order to preventing from havoc, bad luck and sickness. The havoc caused by acquired activities and sins, whether originating from the remainder of the previous acts (in the past life / sancita karmaphala) or from acts in his life now (prarabda karmaphala).

Melukat derived from the word "lukat", derived on Balinese-Kawi (old Javanese languages) dictionary means "bersihin, ngicalang" (in Balinese language) “to cleanse or purified (in English). In the Indonesian Dictionary, the word 'lukat' means ‘letting go’ (to releasing some stuff), then get the prefix 'me' becomes 'melukat', which means doing a job to release something ‘negative’ in the body and soul, through a religious ritual.

The Meaning of ‘Melukat’

The ‘melukat’ ritual means as an efforts of achieving self-purification . These efforts should be sought in accordance with the Lontar (palmleaf scripture)"Dharma Kahuripan" which essentially describes how "human spiritual maintenance", started from the womb until the end of his life.

Thus, the melukat ceremony can be performed many times, according to the situation and needs and goals. Melukat means as a cleansing and purification in spiritual and physical, as it is written in the Manawa Dharmasastra manuscript, Chapter V verse 109, states as follows:

"Adbir gatrani cuddhayanti manah satyena cuddhyati, vidyatapobhyam buddhir jnanena cuddhyatir"


“The body washed with water, the mind cleansed with honesty , the soul cleansed with the science and tapasya, reasonable cleansed with wisdom. "

The deep meaning of this verse told that melukat are in use water to cleaning the body physical (sekala) and psychological (niskala) , while for the medium are using "Tirtha Penglukatan", which first filed with Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa (God Almighty) blessings first, through prayer, (puja) worship and (mantra) spell by a priest (peranda, balian or pemangku).

Melukat Ceremony Type

There are 7 different types of melukat ceremonies , in terms of implementation and objectives ceremony:

1. Melukat Astupungku
aim to cleanse and purify one's evil influence caused by the birth day and Tri Guna (Three material cause on living things=satwam, rajas, Tamas), are not balanced in human body. In accordance with the instructions in Lontar Astupungku.

2. Melukat Gni Anglayang
The goal of this ceremony is medical treatment of a person who is afflicted with the disease. This ritual Implementation is done by a Balian or dukun (shaman) who perform traditional treatments. In accordance with’Lontar Putusan Kala Gni Chandra Bhairawa’.

3.Melukat Gomana
the aim is for the redemption of ‘oton’ (day of birth ), caused by bad influences from wewaran and Wuku (day of birth). Sapta wara includes Wewaran and Wuku (birth day accordings to traditional Balinese Calendar).

4. Melukat Surya Gomana
the goal is to remove ‘stains’ and ‘dirt’ on baby. The ceremony is held at 'mapetik’ or ‘nyambutin’ (new born), ‘tutug tigang Sasih’ (three days) and ‘nelu bulanin’ (3 months) ceremony .

5. Melukat Semara Beda
aims to cleanse the kama jaya (the groom) and the kama ratih (the bride) from the ‘stains’ and ‘dirt’ (mala) in pawiwahan (traditional Balinese wedding ceremony).

6. Melukat Prabhu Wibuh
7. Melukat Nawa Ratna
Melukat Prabhu Wibuh and Nawa Ratna aims to ask the leaders, so that in furture they performing their duties to get the glory and prosperity. The ceremony is also called ‘mejaya-mejaya’.

Melukat place in Bali

The best place for the implementation of this melukat ritual is in natural water source, the meeting of two rivers, waterfalls or the sea. In Bali there are plenty of good melukat places like:

1. Pura Tirta Empul

The Tirta Empul Temple includes the traditional Balinese split gate along with shrines to Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, Mt. Batur, and Indra. There is also a large open pavilion in the main courtyard, useful for relaxing in the shade.But the main attraction here is a long rectangular pool carved of stone, filled with koi and fed by the sacred spring via 12 fountains. Worshippers first make an offering at the temple, then climb into the main pool to bathe and pray. Many collect the holy water in bottles to take home. Nearby there are two smaller pools fed by the spring.

Overlooking the temple on a hill above is a suprisingly modern building: the Government Palace, built in 1954. Originally a residence for Dutch officials, it was later used by former President Soekarno during his frequent trips to Bali. Pura Tirta Empul is located in the village of Tampak Siring, accessible by public transportation from Ubud.

2. Pura Gunung Kawi

Gunung Kawi is located just 1 km north of Tampaksiring off the road to the right. The location is sign posted as you get close. The entire site sits in a small river valley (the Pakrisan River) and requires you to hike down a set of steps past a few more local vendors. The scenery is pretty with rice fields in view and local women washing their clothing in the small stream as you pass.

3. Pura Selukat
Pura Selukat in ‘Subak Tuas’ rice field area, the village of Keramas, Blahbatuh, Gianyar. The extent of approximately 8 acre divided into Tri Mandala, which links the side, a compound into the middle and innards. On Utama Mandala (private/sacred space) are Padmasana building, Gedong Penyimpenan and a pair of Maharsi (holy priest)statues.

In the compound into the middle (Madya Mandala) there are only a Gedong (building) where there is a shower that channel from the fountain at Selukat Temple . In Gedong Patirtan there is patirtan water source consists of three sources, from the west, north and east. While in the compound into the side of the building there is Pesandekan (resting) and two showers a source of water comes from the Gedong to melukat citizens who come to the Selukat Temple.

4. Pura Dalem Pingit, Sebatu-Gianyar
5. Mertha Sari Beach-Sanur -Denpasar
6. Pura Campuhan,Padanggalak-Denpasar
7.The Priests Place (peranda, balian (shaman), ashram and pemangku ) or in accordance with their instructions.

Sri Arwati, Ni Made. 2005. Upacara Melukat: Untuk Ibu-Ibu se-dharma Hindu. Denpasar
"Penyucian Diri" by Winauntari at


Saturday, September 19, 2009

Tantricism Ritual That Exist in Bali Nowadays


Religious rituals in Bali are generally aiming to get peace, prosperity wealthy, begging the blessing and salvation from Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa (God Almighty). Sekala (seen) and niskala (unseen) world is very strong role in Hindu religious lifes and between this two must go together in harmony.

In Bali, it is a habit or tradition of Hindu society to use as a visualization of their prayer and faith with ‘banten’ (offerings). One of these ‘banten’, in order to complete the whole ritual, there is an unique ritual of offerings some drink which called tetabuhan which offers ‘arak-berem’ (traditional Balinese Wine), in the event called ‘tetabuhan’. arak is a traditional wine processed from palm trees and berem made from fermented glutinous rice, both used in tetabuhan (drink offering) ritual. Translucent white arak and red berem this mixed are offered before prayer ceremony in order to completing the yadnya (holy sacrifice) ceremony.

This tradition is characteristic of the influence of tantric sect (tantrayana) teaching. Tantrayana word derived from Sanskrit, the Tantra and Yana. Tantra means a conclusion, the subject, because, obligations. Tantra is also a non-Vedic literature that discuss issues of religious doctrine, the letters of the mystical, metaphysical, philosophy and mantra. Meanwhile, Yana means God.

So it can be concluded that the meaning of the word tantrayana is obligation to Almighty God. Group or sect that teaches about tantra is called Tantrayana. When talking about this tantrayana, interpreted the scary or horrible ritual such as the blood of sacrificial animals (In Old days of Human Blood was in use), grave yard ritual with corpse, blood, skeleton and held on the middle of the night, trance or possessed ritual and naked-free sex accompanied with alcohol rites.

Origin of Tantrayana (Tantricism) in Bali

Tantrayana developed in Singasari Kingdom the royal power in east Java, with it famous king is Kertanagara (1268-1292 AD). His influence spreads from the island of Sumatra to Bali. Kertanegara is a tantrayana believer who proclaimed himself as a Bhairawa.

At the time when Bali has been conquested, so that a Singasari kingdom representative government in Bali is Kebo Parud who also Tantrician. The Tantrayana associated with mystical science or unseen/dark force. In addition is also revered depicted to a very scary statues , which shows ferocious, fierce, scary, and all things associated with death (corpse), skull, blood, human organs etc. Scary statue is used by the tantrayana adherents is to perform the ritual worship. Tantrayana adherents in realizing the statue, accordance the teachings base of uses dark magic and mysticism.

Tantricism and ‘Shakti’ Worshiper

Tantrayana as contained in the Purana scripture is one way to God Almighty. Tantrayana is also one way of ‘Bhakti Marga’ major homage to the Karma Marga and Jnana Marga of Brahmins and the Upanishads. In Tantrayana woman as ‘Shakti’ (feminim force) principle , and is preferably achieved cult.

Understanding the philosophy of trust received from Samkhyayoga with purusa and prakerti theory, more important is to use the syllable containing mystical character Om, Am, Um. By repeating these words and the power of the unseen is believed to be achieved.

The cult of ‘Shakti’ according of tantrayana teaching, that assume that by uttering spells and certain ceremonies, adherents will join with shakti or even become their as Shakti herself. Based on this understanding, a revered sacred blood of the dead flowing incessantly and using sacred magic pictures.

Tantrayana the most important ceremony is to 5 ma, the so-called five tatwa. Panca Tattwa (5 ma) is used as a way to connect the human soul with God. For adherents of tantrayana, the opinion that it is not human sensory ‘murder’ that could give way to achieve spiritual liberation (moksa), but satisfaction and gratification that boredom all human sensory and which will lead people to spiritual liberation.

Tantricism sect in Bali

Tantra is signed and developed in Bali called Tantra Bhairawa Bhima. Tantrayana in general can be divided into three, namely:

1. Bhairawa Kalacakra, this flow more elements of culture. This is one of the forbidden sect in Bali, which is also called Buddha Paksa. Practical by using certain mantras, dancing in the cemetery at night while facing the corpses. The goal is to gain magical powers of these bodies (corpse). The worship statue made like a giant knife-wielding dance upon the skulls and the bodies decorated with intestine.

2. Bhairawa Bhima, dominant in Bali, developing magical tradition which still alive until now. This sect has more sivaism elements on it.

3. Bhairawa Herucakra, where the culture more prominent. This sect developed in Sumatra in the Padang Raco area, with human-headed horse artefact.

But now these sect is melt in Balinese Hindu Religion. This is a reflection of Danghyang Dwijendra who combined all sects in the Balinese Hindu. However, tracks can be seen in religious rituals such as tetabuhan (drink ritual), kerauhan (trance/possessed), tabuh rah/ cockfight (cock fighting) etc.


'Ngereh': Balinese Mystic Ritual In Order To ‘Sacralize’ The Rangda and Barong


'Ngereh' is a mystical ritual procession carried out in the middle of the night and it was the final stage of the ‘sacralized’ process Rangda, or Barong and Barong Landung masks. This is the final stage of the process to rehabilitate old or damaged mask. The meaning of ‘Sacralize’ is activities to empowerment the wooden mask into sacred relic. When mask are ‘sacralize’, the mask will have a mystical and magical power.

According to Ida Pedanda Bang Buruan Manuaba (one of the Balinese Priest)from Geria Muding-Kerobokan district, Badung Regency delinquent, ngereh is symbolic ritual which using sacred characters (aksara) contained in swalita and mudra (Bali character) which are summarized into one that becomes kalimusada and kalimusali (Balinese Mystical power). which is usually used for Surya Sewana ritual (routine Ceremony by Balinese Hindu priest in the morning, in order to respect for the sun ). From kalimusada and it appears kalimusali, the combined dwijaksara five characters then became tri Aksara (Three character), Dwi aksara (Two Character) and eventually became Eka Aksara (one character) (OM).

Ngereh Ritual goals is in order to turn on the power of Ista Dewata (God in human organs) or lingga (position of) God according to each function, especially to empowerment/inisiate the man-made thing. In some Lontar (palm leaves scipture) containing the ngereh ritual is Lontar Canting Mas and Lontar Siwer Mas heritage of Ida Pedanda Sakti Wawu Rauh / Danghyang Dwijendra. Ngereh means to empowerments human core organs (the chakras) in the human body.

In the human body there are seven chakras that must be turned into kundalini rising called ‘Rah’ or ‘ngereh’. In other words we must combining ‘ongkara ngadeg’ and ‘ongkara sungsang’ in this body that aims to activate the power of human itself. It aims to achieve self-awareness and be one with divine qualities. With divine attributes are more stable, will help us do good activities in life. Balinese community known that process by generating an aura (taksu) which based on inner strength. So, not always ngereh ritual is scary. Even if it is scary that a specification of ngereh ritual. Special to the Barong Landung and Rangda ngereh ritual must refer to dresta (tradition) that the local wisdom. Because in Bali every region has a different tradition in Ngereh.

Ngereh and Kerauhan (Trance)

According to I Made Karda a Rangda dancer explained that ngereh similar to ‘kerauhan’(trance) words or possessed, which means being possessed in the manifestation of God spirit . They will move his body in accordance with the powers that occupied it.

there are 2 kerauhan in Bali :
1. ‘Kerauhan’ which usually occurs on ceremony in the temple, or sanggah kemimitan, this is a signal that yadnya has done well, does not work by some mistake.

2. ‘Kerauhan’ in order to bring the Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa (God Almighty) manifestation when establishing a ‘pemangku’ (balinese priest) in niskala (Unseen world), at a temple or sanggah kemimitan. This is called the ‘pemangku’ appointed by Ida Bathara (God manifestation). Another is ‘kerauhan’ in order to ‘pasupati’(sacred empowerment) wooden ‘pule’(kind of sacred wood) ‘Rangda’ mask . After undergoing this ritual the Rangda masks has called Ratu Ayu or other term agreed upon by the community.

The Ngereh Process

Ida Bagus Sudiksa a spiritualist, Calonarang puppeteer and Pratima, Barong and Rangda creator stated that after they finish making a sacred relic, then ‘pengatepan’ ritual performed, melaspas, nueden, ‘pasupati’ by the Balinese priest and then implemented ‘pengerehan’ ritual.

Ritual in Setra (graveyard) is associated with magic and the supernatural are closely associated with the soul of Hindu religion in Bali which adopts shivaism. Associated with ‘ngereh’, there also some Lontar which defined ‘ngereh’ ritual such as ‘Lontar Maya Tatwa’ and ‘Lontar Barong Swari’ which includes about ‘kanda pat’ (Balinese mystical power), The process of making Barong, Rangda, Telek, Jauk and other sacred mask or relic.

Oka Swadiana, Jero Mangku.2008. "Ngereh" Ritual-Supranatural-Tradisional, Surabaya;Paramita.

Friday, September 18, 2009

The Conception of Padmasana: Balinese holiest Building

Padmasana is a shrine to the Hindu people of Bali to worship the Almighty God (Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa). Although Hindu religion in Bali is from India, but the Balinese combined it with the breath of the original Balinese ancient believes. Padmasana is the symbol and image of the macrocosm or universe (Bhuana Agung). This shrine can be found in the Hindu holy building in Bali or outside Bali (Indonesia), even this sacred building is placed in the main shrine.

As with the global issue as local traditions that began to disappear in this digital era, where conditions have turned from sacred to profane. Bali community lives with the era of cultural transformation, from a religious philosophy to the business economy. Now many of the craftsmen who made Padmasana (instantly) that deviate from the basic rules and basic philosophy.

This should make our reflections to move forward. This paper is dedicated to the people who want to explore the basic conception of padmasana, so even if crushed by the modern era but the philosophy remains essentially stored in our memory as a preparation for religious life and the preservation of religion itself.

History of Padmasana

Padmasana as a picture of the universe, from the point of history can be seen in ancient palmleaf scipture Lontar Dwijendra Tattwa mentioning that Padmasana developed by Danghyang Dwijendra, he is also known as or Pedanda Sakti Wawu Rauh, Mpu Kuturan, Danghyang Nirartha.

He came to Bali in the year 1489 AD, during the period of royal administration of Dalem Waturenggong in Gelgel (1460-1550). He came with the aim to improve the religious life in Bali (Sugriwa, 1991). Where before his arrival, Hinduism in Bali has been well developed, because it has been accepted doctrine of the all-Rsi who come to Bali since the 8th century, such as Rsi Markandeya, Danghyang Siddimantra, Danghyang Manik Angkeran, Mpu Jiwaya, Mpu Gnijaya , Mpu Sumeru, Mpu Ghana and Mpu Bharadah.

The Maharsis brings religious sects that developed in Bali and mixed with local beliefs Bali as animism, dynamism, etc. Dwijendra Tattwa further told that when he entered the island of Bali, he is dreaming suck in into a large dragon's mouth and inside the dragon's stomach, he saw a lotus flower growing. Unfortunately there is no pollen (sari bunga) inside.

This illustrates that the dragon is a Anantabhoga Dragon is a symbol of the island of Bali. Where Hinduism is well developed, but only to worship deities as a manifestation of Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, not directly to God. This situation is symbolized as a lotus flower that blooms without a pollen (sari bunga).

Because of Danghyang Dwijendra the Balinese people adding pelinggih form (place of worship) into the form of a Padmasana, a perfect symbol to worship God Almighty (Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa) in full conception. Both in terms of the concept of horizontal or vertical.

The development of Padmasana can clarify the physically ambiguities of pelinggih. All in other word can defined as turned from the building to worship many gods become a place to worship one God (Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa). Until now, Padmasana shrine can be found in all temples in Bali as a main building.

Symbols and Meaning

Padmasana comes from the Kawi language (old Javanese languages) of two words namely, Padma means ‘lotus flower’ or ‘center’. Asana means being seated or guidance or advice or orders (Wojowasito, 1977). Padmasana means the place of the red lotus as sthana (place to stay) the holy God Almighty (Titib, 2001; 106).

Based on these two opinions is clear that the lotus flower is a symbol of the seat of God Almighty. Thus analogous to that Padmasana agreed with the meaning of Padmasana is the image of the universe (Macrocosm) which is sthana (a place to stay) of Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa (God Almighty).

In Lontar Padma Bhuana, Danghyang Dwijendra stated that Bali as Padma Bhuwana ( "lotus flower" of this planet). Lotus Flower (Padma) used as a symbol of the universe ,sthana (place to stay) of the Almighty God.

Furthermore, in the Lontar Dasa Nama Bunga (palmleaf scipture) write that the lotus flower is the king of all flower (Raja Kesuma) because it is the lotus flower in three natural life, which is roots stuck in the mud, leaves in water, and flowers above the water (air).

Because of his life in this three natural , padma flower is a symbol of Tri Loka-Tri Bhuwana (three dimension of world), sthana (place) God Almighty (Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa). The leaves and flowers of many layers as the symbol of the nine cardinal directions of the universe (Sanga Mandala) (Wiana, 2004:69).

If associated with the position in meditation or yoga, Padmasana position is sitting cross-legged position with both feet folded up, so that looks like a circular position. This may not fit with what we see in general, even at the top padmasana throne was shaped like a rectangular king's square-shaped seats (singhasana).

This will be answered if we consider of pesimpen or mendem pedagingan ritual. This ritual implanted pancadatu (5 kind of metal) at the base, in the middle or at the top of the Padmasana when the validation of a ritual process turning ordinary building into sacred building in Balinese Hinduism.

It would appear that the contents of pesimpen pedagingan, especially pedagingan on padma-shaped which is made of gold placed on top, on this the throne-shaped chair square. Because of the golden-Padma which is planted, even though located on the top, it was not visible from the outside. By this golden Padma which implanted on the top on the building so called Padmasana.

Padmasana symbols represent the natural levels Tri Loka (Bhur Loka, Bwah Loka, Swah Loka). This can be seen from Bedawang Nala (big turtle in Hindu mythology) with two dragons (Anantaboga and Basuki). This represents the lower nature or Bhur Loka, Padma bodies including the throne-shaped chair that symbolizes the earth's atmosphere or Bwah Loka, While not described Swah Loka in the form of buildings, but in a tangible Padma shaped pesimpen pedagingan ritual and in worship that are described with "Om Padmasana Ya Namah" and " Om Dewa Pratistha Ya Namah".

In the philosophy of Hinduism, the universe is like unto a "body" of the Ida Hyang Widhi Wasa and known as the great universe (Bhuana Agung). As for the little universe (Bhuana Alit) is the human body with the Atma (human soul) as sovereign. If Sang Hyang Parama Siwa (another name of Ida Sang Hyang Widhi) as the soul of the Bhuana Agung (great universe), then the Sang Hyang Atma Siwa is the soul of Bhuana Alit (little universe). Bhuana alit is a mini form of Bhuana Agung, in the sense Bhuana Agung is similar with Bhuana Alit.

The Padmasana Form

Padmasana building forms similar to the temple which was developed with pepalihan (ornaments with highlights of the building elevation). Padmasana not use the roof on this top symbolizes the unity between the Bhuana Agung with Bhuana Alit. The building consists of parts of the foot called Tepas, the body called Batur and the head called Saris.

1. At the foot (base)
there are tangible carving Bedawang Nala (big turtle in Hindu mythology) are wrapped by the Anantaboga Dragon and the Basuki dragon binding between Bedawang Nala and the foundation of the building Padmasana. Then there are also carvings of lotus flowers and karang asti (elephant ornament symbolized power).

2. In The Body (center)
There pepalihan form of decoration, karang goak (crow ornament), karang simbar (leafs ornament), karang asti (elephant ornaments), Garuda (Lord Vishnu ride), a geese and statues of the Astadikapala Gods (guardian 8 cardinal directions) as: Lord Iswara (east), Lord Brahma (South), Lord Mahadewa (west), Lord Vishnu (North), Lord Maheswara (southeast), Lord Rudra (South-West), Lord Sankara (Northwest) and Lord Sambhu (northeast) . These gods carry weapons and with his complete attributes. There is also Padmasana with Lord Vishnu rides Garuda bird carrying Tirta Amrita (the water of life) like Padmasana at Pura Taman Ayun-Mengwi.

3. At the head / sari
Is a throne flanked by Taksaka dragons made of carved sandstone. On the back there in the middle ulon are engraved portrait or Sang Hyang Acintya or Sang Hyang Taya as a symbol of the realization of Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa. This painting illustrates the attitude of the dance of Siva called Shiva Nataraja in creating the universe.

The Function of Padmasana

Padmasana main function is as a place of worship of Almighty God. Holy building to worship God in his function as the soul of the universe (the macrocosm) with all almighty aspects (Dewa Pratistha). So no Padmasana as the worship of ancestral holy spirit (Atman Pratistha). As in Besakih temple (the mother temple of Bali), Padmasana we can see that in lined three-sthana (place) it is Parama Siwa (middle), Sadasiwa (Right) and Sang Hyang Siwa (Left).

Pelinggih Padmasana is sthana (place) symbol niyasa or Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, with various titles, That Sang Hyang Siwa Raditya the manifestations of God as the sun (solar) and Sang Hyang Tri Purusa, the trinity of Siwa, Sada Siwa and Parama Siwa.


According Lontar Wariga Chatur Wisana Sari, Padmasana layout (Pengider Bhuwana) distinguished by typology and based on the form rong (space) and pepalihan (level or undag)

Based on the Layout

Based on the location of Padmasana distinguished by the direction of the wind (Pengider Bhuana) into 9 types, namely:

1. Padma Kencana, in the east (purwa) facing west (pascima).
2. Padmasana, in the south (daksina) facing north (uttara)
3. Padmasari, in the west (pascima) facing east (purwa)
4. Padma Linga, in the North (uttara) facing south (daksina)
5. Padma Sedhana Asta, in the southeast (agneya) facing to the northwest (wayabhya)
6. Padma Noja, in the southwest (nairity) facing northeast (airsaniya)
7. Padma Karo, in the northwest (wayabaya) facing the southeast (agneya)
8. Padma Saji, in the northeast (airsanya) facing to the southwest (nairity).
9. Padma Kurung, in the midst of the temple (middle) facing toward the exit / entry gates (pemedal).

The selection was also based on the location of Padmasana considerations of the temple lay out where the hulu-teben conception. Hulu-teben philosophy arises because human beings is difficult to imagine God, then people think God is like the man himself has a head, body and legs.

Hulu said to be head , as an intermediate body and legs as teben. This concept brings the life skala (real) and niskala (unreal). for example, in order to build temple. The existence of a very sacred part of the so-called Utama Mandala (private space), the less sacred called Madya Mandala (semi-private space) and the part is not sacred called Nista Mandala(public space).

Hulu-teben uses two references which are:
1.East as hulu, as the sun rises (the sun here is defined as a source of life energy /good connotation) and the west as teben (mean connotation of death).
2. Mount as hulu because of the Balinese considered mountains is a sacred place where the gods lives and the sea as teben (exile), like the water cycle in nature. Because according to the Balinese life would not exist if there is no water

Acwin Dwijendra, Ngakan Ketut,2008, Arsitektur Bangunan Suci Hindu Berdasarkan Asta Kosala-Kosali, Denpasar, Udayana University Press

Sugriwa, IGB. 1991. Dwijendra Tatwa. Denpasar. Upada Sastra
Titib, I Made. 2001. Teologi dan Simbolis Dalam Agama Hindu. Surabaya; Penerbit Paramita.
Wiana, I Ketut. 1992. Palinggih di Pamerajan, Denpasar: Upada Sastra


Saturday, September 12, 2009

The Function Of Water (Tirtha) In Balinese Hindu Rituals


The Balinese belief and worship of Hindu Dharma in Bali governs all the activities of the daily life of the Balinese. The three basic fundamentals of Hindu Dharma are Yadnya (rituals), Tattwa (philosophy) and Susila (moral behaviour), which are interacted to form Balinese culture. Hindu religion is originated from India. The practice of the Philosophy in the Balinese Hindu in Bali is almost similar to the practice of Hindu in India whereas in Balinese Hindu is moreattached to the local culture. Basic practice of rituals are based on the Vedas (Holy Manuscript) and the philosophy of Yadnya (rituals ) are also referring to it.

There are five types of Yadnya
( means holy sacrifice with a pure heart) in Balinese Hindu:

1)Dewa Yadnya: to the Gods and Goddesses as manifestations of the Supreme Being.
2)Pitra Yadnya: to the ancestors who give the people guidance in life and gave them the opportunity to be born.
3) Manusa Yadnya: to protect our lives and those of future generations
4)Rsi Yadnya: to the priests who guide us all on our spiritual journey.
5) Bhuta Yadnya: to any other beings (visible and invisible) to ensure that there will be harmony and unity in nature.

In Hindu believers there are important elements of nature to be considered as the guideline of rituals in retaining the harmonious living of the human being (Nair,2009). Those elements comprise of: earth, water, fire, air, and akasa/ether or sky ( which are called as panchamahabhuta). Among the five elements water is represented by a circle symbolises fullness based on the graphical depiction of panchamahabhuta. Primarily water is the building block of life and all the living beings are at the mercy of God, for the water.In India as well as in Bali water has been an object of worship from time immemorial, which signifies the non-manifested substratum from which all manifestation arise. This leads the
practice of utilizing water as the purification of all rituals. In conducting every religious rite, the presence of holy water is the most important part of all Balinese ceremonies (Agastia, 2007).
Holy water accompanies every act of Balinese-Hindu worship from individual devotion at household shrine to island-wide ceremonies.


In Bali, there is no single day without a ceremony. It is an obligation for the people to promote balance relations among human, Divine, and nature. As has it was mentioned previously among the five elements water is represented by a circle symbolises fullness based on the graphical depiction of panchamahabhuta. Primarily, water is the building block of life
and all the living beings which are at the mercy of God. Balinese Hindu appreciate water is not only needed in their daily life but also has a very important function in religious ceremonies. Water, in Balinese Hindu has various terms as follows:


1. Odaka (Odakem), water in common meaning which has the function for hands and mouth cleanliness, for drinking, etc.
2. Toya (Toyem), water which has the function in religious ceremonies. Toya means water and in common sense for washing hands or ceremonies completeness, and it can also means the water which has been purified. In Bali, the term toya is often used for mentioning the water in discussing about people who are appreciated more.
3. Tirtha, is the purified water. The purification is done through the specific mantram chanting by authorized person a priest Pedanda or pemangku or even obtain from a certain place with special ceremonies.
4. Wangsuh-pada, tirtha which is taken or beseeched at a shrine ‘pelinggih’ or aplace supposed to be sacred.

In Balinese rituals there are two types of water utilised as worship medium, i.e:
1. Water which as the function to clean hands and mouth, in practice this type of water is utilized to clean oneself before conducting prayer in the temple or attending ceremony.
2. Water as tirtha comprises of holy water (tirtha) obtained from certain sources from sacred place or beseech from the shrine or the temple in which certain manifestation of Goddess being adored/worship and tirtha performed by priest through certain mantras.

1. Tirtha Wangsuhpada
2. Tirtha Sulinggih

1. Tirtha Wangsupada
The tirtha obtained from certain sources is usually through beseech to the Devine or Goddess. These may be performed by placing water in the temple or shrine and in that manner the worshipper hope the blessing from the Devine. This type of tirtha is usually beseeched by the pemangku or dasaran of the temple or shrine in the companion of certain type of offering named canangsari.
Certain places can be regarded as the source of tirta such as Tirtha Empul. The worshipper can obtain tirtha with particular type of offering for certain purposes as in Tirtha Empul is regarded as the holy place to abtain tirta from the source.
Here are the types of tirtha obtained from Tirtha Empul (Tampak Siring Gianyar):
· Tirtha Pemarisuda
· Tegteg
· Suddhamala
· Bayun Cokor
· Pemelaspas
· Empul
· Pengentas

2. Tirtha Performed by Pemangku and Priest
Priest in performing types of tirtha according to the purpose and function of the rituals. The tirtha performed by priest through Ngarga Tirtha in Panca Yadnya (five types of rituals):
tirtha pengelukatan, pebersihan, ,prayascita and byokaon,pemelaspas, penembak, pengentas and pecaruan.

Tirtha performed by pemangku and preist is depending on the purpose of the rituals or ceremony that are several tirtha performed by them such:
1. Tirtha pengelukan and pembersihan, this is type of tirtha is used in every ritual, it is sprinkled three times over the offering before it is offered to the God. In every house
the Balinese Hindu always store tirtha in jar or container for the daily offering either mesaiban or ngaturang canang (small ornament of offering)
2. Tirta prayascita and byokaoan, this type of tirta performed by the priest in which it is used as puroifiaction of a place, or to sprinkles toward the warshippers before prayer when there a large ceremony happened in the temple or after attending a funeral/cremation those who were just arrived from such visit thay had to be given prayascita and byokaon to clean them themselves from the dirt or the uneasy of mourning feeling and back to normal activities.
3. Tirtha Pemelaspas, this type of tirtha is performed by priest whenever the worshipper has a new premises, or new business this is aims at beseeching for the blessing from the God that in the hope everything related to the new premises and business will run smoothly.
4. Tirta pengentas this type of tirta is performed by the priest to accompany a cremation in the hope that the death will be lead to the right track in his/her appearance before the divine.
5. Tirta pemanah this type of tirta is performed by priest which also to accompany in the cremation in order that the death will find smooth path in journey to Heaven
6. Tirta pecaruan comprises from small to higher purification ceremony according to the type will be performed this type of tirtha only performed by preist ( mecaru siap besik,mecaru ayam lima, mecaru panca kelud, up to melabuh gentuh).
.Apart from the water mentioned above the Balinese Hindu also use the coconut water,whether the one which is already mature or even still young without any flash in it, named ‘kelungah’. There are three kinds of water utilized in religious ceremonies, namely: water incommon sense, the purified water (Tirtha), and coconut water. Among those three waters Tirtha has the most important role. It is the reason that the upakara and the offering being utilized in the ceremony have not yet been considered clean so the Tirtha is supposed to be able to purify those all then it is ready to be adored or worshipped to the Almighty God. On the contrary, although the upakara completeness and offering have been cleaned since those have not yet been purified with Tirtha, it is not proper to be adored to the Almighty God.


1. Tirtha which has the function to purify places, buildings, upakara completeness or even an individual. This kind of tirtha can be requested through mantram chanting by authorized person, in this case a priest or a pemangku. The ones which belong to this kind of Tirtha are tirtha penglukatan, tirtha pebersihan, and the kinds. There are also
tirtha which can be beseeched from certain places which have religious history or mythology like Tirtha Empul, Tirtha Tunggang, and the kinds. The young coconut water or air kelungah belongs to this kind of tirtha.

2. Tirtha which is utilized at the end or the last step of praying ceremony whether it is held at a certain place or temple. This kind of tirtha is commonly beseeched at a shrine ‘pelinggih’ which is supposed to be the main ‘pelinggih’ in a temple or sacred place and has close relationship with that temple. The term for this kind of tirtha is wangsuhpada.

3. Tirtha which is utilized in the rituals of the death as in cremation ceremony (ngaben) such as Tirtha Penembak, Tirtha Pemanah, and Tirtha Pengentas. The tirtha has to be sprinkled three times over the corpse before the corpse is going to be burnt.

Three times sprinkles commonly as the symbol of purification which include: initial, middle, and end. But if it is given to somebody, besides it is sprinkled three times on their head it also has to be consumed three times as the symbol of spiritual purification, and wash the face three times with the tirtha as the symbol of physic purification, and the sprinkle three times over the fontanel as the respectful of the power and purification of the tirtha. In the Weda Parikrama and Surya-Sevana, it is described that the purpose of utilizing the tirtha which is limited on an individual. It can be concluded that the function of tirtha in the ceremonies is to purify spiritually and physically (physic is cleaned with water, mental is cleaned with tirtha).


Based on the meaning and function tirtha can be formulated as the following:
1) as purification
2) as purgatorial medium
3) as source of life

1) Tirtha as purification
In conducting rituals all the medium of offerings such as rituals ornaments and offerings should be purified before they were offered as rituals to the Devine or Goddess. This means to purify and clean in spiritual world/niskala and further purified. As it was stated in the manuscript Lontar Kusuma Dewa and Gong Wesi: Salwiring bebanten yadnya matirta karya Pandita Putus tan ketampi aturannya (Swastika, 2008:85). This statement means that all mediums (bebantenan or offerings) if it is not purified previously with the tirtha performed by the Exalted Priest otherwise it will not be accepted. Based on this statement all mediums of offerings and forms of offerings previously should be purified before it is used as offerings.

2. Tirtha as Purgatorial Medium
The function of tirtha, besides as penglukatan, pebersihan, and penyucian all types of mediums and forms of offerings also has the function of purgatorial from all of the offerings in every rituals (yadnya). It is emphasized that banten not only comprises of various arrangements of leaves, fruits, seeds, cakes (jajan), and others but also as a unity of a ritual (upakara
persembahan) in the form of banten officially which become a religious medium with sacred value and spiritually enliven. All those ingredients of offerings are picked from the trees and it
will become mortal being. Furthermore they were arranged in such a way to become valuable and has spiritual meaning in the form of banten. A banten is considered proper according to religious conduct whenever it has been given the sprinkle of tirtha (penglukatan and pebersihan) on it. This is to purify all the dirt, physically and spiritually and the last to enliven it as banten or upakara as an offering or expression of bhakti of the Hindu worshippers before the Almighty God (Ida Sang Hyang Widhi as the Creator). The splash of tirtha as a means of pengurip or to enliven gives the spiritual strength of the banten. This can be further used as a medium to unite the worshippers and the Creator.

3. Tirtha as Source of Life
Tirtha functions as the source of life. Whenever there is no existence of water the possibility of the nature with its content will be extinct. This also happens in the process of ritual tirtha which has the function as a blessing from God to the worshippers who worship Him. In daily practise, every time after the prayer the worshippers will be purified with tirtha (delivery of holy water). Tirtha as a symbol of life and by delivering to the worshippers who pray before Him will receive Amerta (Immortality).


Tirtha is holy water which is sprinkled before and after ceremony. The name and function of this holy water is depending on the ceremony itself, so that is why there are many names and functions of Tirtha. There are two types of Tirtha which is always found in a ceremony. The first one is Tirtha Pelukatan. This holy water is applied as soul cleanser before one enter a temple or start ceremony. Tirtha Pelukatan is sprinkled by the temple priest to all people before starting a ceremony. In some places in Bali when the temple ceremony was held Tirtha Pelukatan is put inside a big earthenware in front of entrance door and stained by the people themselves. The second Tirtha is called Tirtha Wangsuh Pada. This holy water is sprinkled after a ceremony is over as a symbol of God blessing to human.


In Balinese Hindu, Tirtha is the prominent medium in conducting all types of rituals from a small daily offering to the entire large and extraordinary types of ceremonies. Tirtha, the
existence as the basic purification in every ritual either the one obtain from a certain sources (Tirtha Wangsupada ) or the one performed by the Holy Priest (Pedanda) is very important. The Balinese Hindu always store tirta panglukan and pabersihan ( from the priest ) in container either made of earthen ware or jar (glass) in their home, which is utilized in conducting everyday rituals meassaiban or conducting every five days (kliwon) sacrifice as mesegeh.The origin of holy water reflects spiritual. Although the types and origin of holy water is varied, their functions both spiritually and philosophically remain the same which are remove impurity to performed purification and to receive God`s Blessing.

Ida Ayu Made Puspani and Ni Wayan Sukarini

Ratnadi, Putu Ayu dan I Putu Patra. 2008. Tuntunan Malukat. Penerbit: Paiketan Pemangku
Werdi Dharma Prawerdhi Kecamatan Baturiti Tabanan.
Swastika, Drs. I Ketut Pasek. 2008. Puja Tri Sandya-Panca Sembah Arti dan Makna. Penerbit:CV. Kayumas Agung.
Wikarman, Drs. I Nyoman Singgih. 1998. Bayuh Oton: Ruwatan Menurut Kelahiran. Penerbit:Paramita Surabaya.
Doa Upacara Manusa Yadnya. Edisi Cetak: Maret 2007. Penerbit: Pustaka Manikgeni.
Sutareka, Mpu Jaya Danka. 2006. Argha Patra Pinandita/Pemangku Dalam Menyiapkan Tirtha Pebersihan. Penerbit: Paramita Surabaya.
Agama Hindu dan Air: Mengantisipasi Masalah Air di Bali. Dharma Prawerti Sabha
Dharmopadesa Pusat 10 Maret 2007.


"Balian" Balinese Traditional Healer

Just about everywhere in Indonesia you will find that Balians, or Dukuns, are sought out to heal illnesses or dispel evil spirits. Even in a society where modern medical facilities are available, it is to the mystic person they go. There was an interesting article in the Bali Discovery regarding these most sought after members of Balinese society. Over on the neighbouring island of Java, the Javanese firmly believe that that the spiritual world is richly populated with deities who inhabit people, things, and places, and who are ever ready to cause misfortune. With the aid of a dukun, or through spiritual acts of self-control and right thinking, Javanese believe they can protect themselves against these harmful spirits by making offerings.

In the daily life of the Balinese the balians, or mystic mediums, play a central role. In fact, the name balian is loosely applied to a wide range of men and women who possess sacred skills or specialized knowledge in the performance of rituals of passage.
Members of the elite circle of balians may be called upon to interpret ancient lontar palm manuscripts, divine messages from the gods or ancestors, decipher “signs” of spiritual import hidden in the natural world, perform midwifery duties, prepare the dead for cremation, massage the sick, set broken bones or determine which family ancestor now inhabits the soul of a newborn child. The natural inclination to humility causes many Balinese who perform balian roles in their community to deny they fill a mystical or sacred function implied by that title; much as many gifted artisans in Bali do not view themselves as artists.
In an effort to understand exactly how widespread the role of the balian is in Balinese society, the Suryani Institute Bali is undertaking pioneering research to catalog the number and variety of balians operating in 20 remote villages in eastern Bali. Preliminary results from Karangasem reveal that at least 152 balians or paranormal practitioners are operating in that region, according to Dr. Cokorda Bagus Jaya Lesmana, the Secretary of the Institute quoted in NusaBali.
Dr. Lesmana, a young Balinese psychiatrist who is also the Son of Indonesia’s world-renowned psychiatrist and author Professor Dr. Luh K. Suryani, claims the balian plays a central and very beneficial role in local communities ranging from alternative medical practice to performing rain stopper services.
In surveying balians, the Institute intends to eventually improve cooperation and knowledge-sharing between traditional healers and modern medical practitioners with a particular emphasis on the treatment of mental illness and emotional disorders. In December 2007, the Suryani Institute Bali plans to hold a seminar involving medical and psychiatric experts and balians to discuss means of improving the mental health of local communities and curbing the rising suicide rates in Bali.
Actually, one of my rellies in Java is a Dukun (through marriage) and is a really nice guy and a good one. However, several years ago I tried to seek knowledge of his good practices but was soon scorned upon.; image "cakra mangku" by saylow


The Existence of Balinese Voodoo

In Bali the power of teluh desti terangjana (Balinese High Powerful Black Magic) use some facilities. Including timber which is made to resemble the human form. Then given offerings and spells to harm the targeted person. And if a quick glance at the far side, then in some African countries there is same rituals as the strength teluh in Bali, called the Voodoo.

Voodoo is a kind of black magic power by using teluh doll or statue. This Black Magic strength was developed in Africa, and no one knows how big the Voodoo when attackings. According Soelung Lodhaya (The founder of Rwa Bhineda Spiritual Groups-Bali), one of Africa Voodoo doll owners in Bali are saying that there is agreement with the devil in the ritual.

"I have the original Voodoo doll from zinbabwe, Africa is five hundred years olds" he said. Voodoo doll statue made of wood is naturally hollowed hole from the tips. And that is regarded as the king of Voodoo dolls. Agreement is referred to the devil in order to rising of black magic power with some Voodoo ritual, one has to flush Voodoo doll with fresh blood.

If the level of ordinary Voodoo used fresh blood especially black cats, crows, black dogs, black snakes and all the black animals blood. there was an agreement with the power of Satan to be used to hurt someone. The Voodoo dolls is held in such a way to attack some one and then stabbed with a needle on someone;s name who are chosen to hurt. Suddenly Voodoo powers will react to those who targeted. Only this "Ordinary Voodoo" can not be used to killing people who are targeted.

But 'king of Voodoo' Power was very fierce Voodoo, and can be controlled from a distance and deadly. And rituals are also very heavily traveled.
To the African, Voodoo 'king' use on the ritual offerings, and sacrifice an adolescent girl . "The ritual was held hundreds of years ago," explained Soelung who has examined about the existence of this Voodoo. Voodoo users, will stab and cut the girl's chest with ostrich leg bone, which is dedicated to use in the ritual altar .
Then the heart was taken and dedicated to the devil, of course there is an agreement between the voodoo user with the devil before. Then the girl's heart entered into in Voodoo doll. Now the voodoo doll are ready to use to hurt or kill someone who targeted, by the focusing on someone's face and fill with fresh blood and stabbed.

Soelung said, if this voodoo attacked you, it will not be treated in any way to recover. Unless the Voodoo dolls wich is used to hurt you, is burned.
Or also those Voodoo user (voodoo shaman) dies so that his strength is gone and the targeted who suffered by Voodoo attack can recover again.


Wednesday, September 9, 2009

The Mystical Power of "Pis Bolong"

Origin of Pis Bolong

Pis bolong or Ancient Chinese Coints (kepeng money) have become money transactions tool in Bali in the past. Called Pis Bolong means money with hollows. The Shape is round, flat,hollow at its center and Chinese written characters on both sides, mostly made from copper. In Bali, this "pis bolong" or kepeng money still has a function in the Balinese Hindu community. Various means of ceremonies still use it, and also used to make souvenir items for the sake of tourism.

some experts in the field of archaeological objects believe that kepeng money comes from China. One of them is the opinion of the F.A. Liefrinch that mention a Chinese kepeng coins as money transaction in Bali. This opinion is based on the two surfaces of uang kepeng contains writing Chinese characters.

According to the story in the past, there was a traveler from China who called Fa Hien went sailing toward the land of Hindu India and Sri Lanka. After a while there, he returned to his native country around 414 AD. But in the middle of the trip, ship was attacked and suffered storm damage. The ship was then stranded on an island which became known as Ya-wa-in. It is said that is the Ya-wa-in is Java Dwipa or Java. There is a possibility at that time kepeng money already introduced there.

But there are experts who argue that the money kepeng known in Indonesia at the time of the kingdom in the archipelago trade relations with China. As it is known that the Chinese nation is renowned as a nation of traders since ancient times. At that time they've done trade with nations in other parts of the world, either by land or by sea. Evidence of trade relations between China with the kings of Java can be verified by the finding of money kepeng in considerable quantities in some cities such as Pati, Kudus, Batang, Kendal, Cilacap, Temanggung, Purworejo, Blora, which is geographically mostly located on the coast. R. Gorris, a historian of the Dutch who lived in Sanglah, Denpasar, said that the money kepeng already known in Bali around 882 AD.

For some Balinese Hindu society, certain types kepeng money believed to have supernatural or magical powers. According to Koentjoroningrat, the human ability to deal with this life is based on instinct and science. But sometimes it is not able to solve the problems it faces completely rational manner. For that they figure it out in irrational way , by witchcraft or magic. It is said also that the witchcraft mentioned is a human ways to influence the nature in an effort to achieve goals.

The existence of such human effort that ultimately led to the things that have supernatural powers, one of which is in the form of money kepeng. Surely this kind of money kepeng has peculiarities not shared by ordinary kepeng money. If the money used in general kepeng on two sides of Chinese writing, but the magic kepeng money on one side or rerajahan will contain a certain image of the image of Arjuna, Bhima, Krishna, Pandavas, Twalen, Sangut, Hanuman, Horse, fishnet, Crescent moon etc.

Money kepeng containing rerajahan (Balinese sacred drawing or handwriting) generally have the power in accordance with the image contained on one side of the kepeng money. His magical powers will arise if the owner or carrier of such kepeng money was sure of it. Some rumors were heard in the community that was widely magic kepeng money is very powerful. Someone who won the run race distance rumored to have kepeng money which have a picture of the horse known as Pis Jaran. A young man whose face was not so promising was suddenly married to a girl as beautiful as an angel, then was rumored to have Pis Rejuna.

Magical Functions
Balinese believes some of the kepeng money has a magical powers for the owner. But not all kepeng money have a magical powers only kepeng money with some sacred drawing. To change the ordinary kepeng money into magical some ritual must held. The Ritual calls pasupati or inisiate the ordinary kepeng money with spiritual powers with some offerings and Balinese priest/shaman (balian or mangku). Bellow is some examples the magical kepeng money with each spiritual function.
Pis Sangut and Pis Delem? This is in great demand by many people because they have magical powers as Sangut figures in wayang stories. With a Pis Sangut then people will become very good at arguing. Similarly, pis Twalen also believed to have supernatural powers. It is believed that by bringing this Pis Twalen/Malen people will feel calm when confronted with any situation. He will be respected by his enemies, and able to influence the thoughts and opinions of others.

Pis Rejuna With Angel(Dedari); makes the owner idolized by girls; the owner looks like Arjuna/rejuna the most handsome character in Pandawa.

Then, Pis Kresna, according to Kresna's role in the puppet world, then the function is as a guide to the direction of virtue and wisdom. It is believed also that the people who make a fetish pis Kresna will have noble qualities such as always sided with the truth, honest, and always uphold justice. Therefore it is very suitable objects owned by a state leader.

Pis Nawa Sanga: Nawa Sanga is like an compass for Balinese peole. Nawa Sanga which means nine direction of winds; will prevents the owner from evil spirits, bring good luks, remove all obstacles.

Pis Pandawa, so called, because on the surface there is a picture of trep fifth son of Pandu Knight according to Mahabratha Story representing the protagonists character , namely: Dharmawangsa, Bima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadewa. This talisman believed to have supernatural powers such as dignity, strength, and wisdom.

Pis Delem: delem is one of servant from the antagonist character in pewayangan(Balinese Puppet show); with this talisman the owner will have confidence in debates.

Pis Rejuna, according to the epithet, then on one side was a picture of Arjuna/Rejuna. In the story of the Mahabharata, Arjuna is known as the third son of Dewi Kunti, and number three of the Pandawa. In addition to good archery, he was also known as a valiant knight. Her face is beautiful cause she idolized by many women. That's the real beauty of the cause then way many men willing to have the Pis Rejuna . In addition, there are some people who believe that by making a fetish pis Rejuna will cause a lot of women crazy to the owner. But there is another opinion says that Pis Rejuna function is to maintain the relationship of a husband-wife or the couple's relationship romance.

Pis Nakula-Sadewa; Nakula-Sadewa is the famous twins of Pandawa, this talisman brings you good luck, maintain relationship among your friend, relatives.

Pis Bolong Siwa; Bathara Siwa is the highest Gods in Balinese Hindu religion, This Talisman will brings high spiritual power to the owner, prevents form evil spirits.

Pis Bolong Dewi Kunti: Kunti is the mother of Pandawa, this talisman brings wisdom as a mother to her son/daughter; to maintain inner beauty of women.

This is Pis Bulan/Dewi Ratih, according to sources this Pis Bulan have magical powers to women or mothers, for increasing the inner beauty of women.
Pis Bima has supernatural powers which in essence upholding honesty and truth. Therefore, very suitable pis Bima owned by people who assumed duties as Pecalang(Balinese community Security). In addition, for those who make a fetish pis Bima will make him agile and skilled in war. Similarly, pis Anoman (Hanuman, The powerful white-monkey in Ramayana Story), The speciality is able to provide the strength and energy like wind to the person who brought them.

The picture above are example of Genuine Pis Bolong which obtained by High Spiritual Force by someone which chosen (Kapaica). And in fact there are many more types of Pis Bolong or rerajahan kepeng money circulating in communities with limited or symbolic images.

However, it should be understood that this type of pis bolong there are also lots of copy, which this certainly does not have supernatural powers and what its role is limited as a mere accessory items.;image


Balinese "Leak" can help or hurt someone

If you spend your days with Balinese, you will probably get a story about Leak or Balinese magic. And sometimes it is hard to believe it, but often it will make you very curious. To get someone that can show you about this magic is not as easier as you get someone who can tell you about Leak.

But there is a chance for you to get more information about it now. In Panjer, southern of Denpasar, someone can tell you and show some parts of this magic. His name is Ngurah Harta, a young spiritual figure.

Recently, he showed what a leak was in front of many audiences in a seminar on Leak in Udayana University. And he has a plan to hold a workshop on Leak where he will show how the process of becoming a leak is. Unfortunately, however, you will not be able to ask him to show his magic anytime you want. Discussing how to show the magic is considered to be taboo.

In Bali, people have a bad image of Leak. They believe that Leak can make one fall sick or killed. One wishing to learn about leak should devote his or her self to Durga, in hope that She may bestow upon one the gift of being able to use leak's mantra effectively. After having achieved one's end by means of offering and prayers recited during a mystic dance in the middle of the night in the graveyard, then he will transform into a leak.

A leak has a power to change its appearance into an animal, a bike or a car, a flaming ghost (endih), a demon devil, and others that he wants.

A Leak has several ways to change its appearance: First, what Balinese call leak pamoroan. It can change completely into animals that appear only during the night. They try to suck their victims or just frighten them.

Second, Tluh, a change of the appearance but only its facial expression: The face is swollen, the eyes are distended and glowing with the fixed gaze. They appear at daytime, exert themselves to stab their enemies into stomach with a knife hidden in their hand.

Third, higher level is tranjana. They can appear during the day or the night. Their appearance is only to be seen indistinctly, partly invisible, or as a shadow to straggle his victim.

However to harm or kill someone, leak can also use papasangan. It does not need to change his or her appearance. Sometimes, leaks are seen involved in fights, measuring their power one against another. Common people usually are unable to see the fights. And the one who losses the fight will fall ill or will show sitting of blood and is doomed to death.

A trained (leak's master) will usually find it much easier to transform its performance.. Having concentrated on a shape of an animal he is going to change into and recited magical words (mantra) properly, then he will transform directly into a leak.

The leak is considered to be lower than mankind because what he eats include corpses and everything putrefied. He sees a dead dog as a delicious food and he mistakes foul smell for fragrance and perfume.

Actually, Leak is not as bad as people think. It is like a knife: It can help us or hurt us, depending on how and what we use it for. Mangku Ketut Rnam said that Leak more is like a sharpened knowledge and "it is not bad as people think, it can be used to help people although it can hurt people, too."

LK. Suryani, meditation expert, also shared Mangku Tetut Rnam's view, saying that people have misperception about leak. "People just see it from the negative side. They do not realize that leak is just like a meditation or other kinds of science," she said.

She believes that leak still exist in Bali.

Ngurah Harta realizes that challenges facing those who already have a bad image about leak. "Leak is one of our heritages that need to be retained to prevent it from extinction. If leak is said to be a bad thing, I do not agree. In fact, it will entirely depend on individuals themselves. If leak is used for healing purposes, then it means good but when leak is used to harm people, it means bad," he said.

source: image:I Gusti Nyoman Lempad, The dagger Atack on Rangda (1930s) courtessy of Neka Museum


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